Sindoedarsono Sudjojono was a largely self-taught artist, art critic, and writer who shaped the development of Indonesian modernism. During the Dutch colonial period in Indonesia he fought for a genuinely Indonesian art, free from European colonial influences. He laid great emphasis on the development of a personal artistic language and focused on depicting the everyday lives of Indonesian people during the Dutch colonial regime, which began in the eighteenth century. He rejected the predominant colonial style—which he critically termed Mooi Indië (Beautiful Indies)—for its idealized depiction of the Indonesian landscape. In Indonesian Art Now and That of the Future (1939) Sudjojono criticized Indonesian artists for adopting this style. Sudjojono helped to establish several artists associations: PERSAGI (Union of Indonesian Painters) (1937–38), SIM (Young Indonesian Artists) (1946), and People’s Painters (1947). In 1950 he joined the Indonesian Communist Party and adopted a social realist style. In 1951 he traveled to Europe and participated in the third Weltfestspiele der Jugend und Studenten (World Festival of Youth and Students) in East Berlin. His body of work includes paintings, sketches, drawings, public art, reliefs, and ceramics. After 1959 he withdrew from politics and instead focused on painting landscapes; still-lifes, and portraits.