Hans Haacke is a conceptual artist whose works often carry distinct political overtones. Haacke studied at the Public Works Academy (Staatliche Werkakademie), Kassel, from 1956 to 1960 and then worked at Atelier 17 in Paris. In 1961 he earned a scholarship to attend the Tyler School of Art, Temple University, in Philadelphia, and in 1963 he moved to New York. He has spent most of his career teaching art at a number of American institutions, except from 1963 to 1965 and other brief periods, when he taught in Germany. For his public projects he has applied investigative and demonstrative methods in order to uncover financial and institutional interrelations and interferences within the art market. He has also shown an interest in biological phenomena, for example in his Condensation Cube (1963). In 1971 his planned solo show at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York was canceled by museum director Thomas Messer because several works in the exhibition raised critical questions about the business and personal connections of the museum's trustees. Haacke received an award from the National Endowment for the Arts in 1978 as well as other notable prizes. In 1993, for example, he represented Germany at the Venice Biennale and won the Golden Lion award, together with Nam June Paik.