The revolutionary movement Situationist International (SI), comprised of artists and theorists, hinged on the collaboration between Guy Debord and Asger Jorn from the mid-1950s to the early 1960s. Jorn participated in Marxist political activity and avant-garde movements in his youth, co-founding CoBrA, a collective that strove for total artistic freedom, in the late 1940s. Jorn and Debord, a French Marxist intellectual, became friends in 1954, and SI was established in 1957 in Alba, Italy, with Debord as its leader. The group decried the theory of “industrial,” mass-produced art and commodity fetishism, as in their interruption of an international critics’ meeting in 1958 during the Brussels World’s Fair. As SI activists redirected their attention from art to a general critique of capitalist culture, Jorn left the group in 1961 and founded the nonprofit Skandinavisk Institut for sammenlignende vandalisme (Scandinavian Institute of Comparative Vandalism). In 1964 Jorn received a Guggenheim Award and publicly declined it via an eviscerating telegram. Debord’s book La Société du spectacle (The Society of the Spectacle) (1967), considered a foundational text to the May 1968 Paris uprising, critiqued capitalist culture, whereby the consumption of images replaced authentic human interaction. In 1972 the SI dissolved its operations in 1972.