Eduardo Paolozzi—sculptor, collagist, printmaker, and filmmaker—is associated with the development of British Pop art; his early collages from the late 1940s and early ‘50s incorporated American magazine advertisements, paperback book covers, and scientific illustrations. The son of Italian immigrants, Paolozzi was interned for three months after Italy declared war on Britain in June of 1940. During that time his father and grandfather were also detained, then drowned when their ship to Canada was attacked by a German U-boat. Paolozzi studied at the Edinburgh College of Art (1943) and the Slade School of Fine Arts (1944–47), where he met his future Independent Group collaborators. Afterward, he worked in Paris for two years and got to know sculptors Alberto Giacometti (1901–1966) and Constantin Brancusi (1876–1957), who influenced his later work. His relationship to Surrealist artists and his rough-and-ready aesthetic vision merged with his interest in modern machinery and mass media. In the early 1960s, for example, Paolozzi expanded his sculptural techniques through his collaboration with industrial engineering firms, eventually using aluminum. Paolozzi taught at a number of art and design schools in Britain and Germany from 1949 until his retirement in 1994, the last one being the Akademie der Schönen Künste (Academy of Fine Arts) in Munich.