Affandi was a self-taught artist who is regarded as a leading figure within the modern art movement in Indonesia. He is known for his expressionistic painting style from the 1950s, with colorful swirling lines of thick impasto directly applied on the canvas with the tube or his fingers. However, his early works from the 1930s and ‘40s drew on a more impressionistic style. Affandi’s subjects were always grounded in reality. In his early years he depicted his family and surroundings at home, later he focused on his journeys throughout Indonesia and around the world. In the 1930s Affandi was involved in the Lima Bandung artist group. At the time of Indonesia’s independent movement in the 1940s Affandi took part in several artists’ associations, including the Pelukis Rakyat (People’s Painters) and Asosiasi Pelukis Indonesia (Indonesian Painters Association), and encouraged the fight against the Dutch occupation. Affandi gained international recognition when he represented Indonesia at the Venice Biennale in 1954 (where he won a prize) and the Bienal de São Paulo in 1956. Later he was honored with notable prizes and teaching appointments in the United States and Indonesia.