Movimento Nucleare (Enrico Baj, Sergio Dangelo, and Joe C. Colombo). The atomic bombings of Japan during World War II by the United States and the subsequent Cold War nuclear arms race between the US and the USSR strongly influenced the development of the Movimento Nucleare (Nuclear Movement). The movement began in Milan in 1950 when Italian artists Enrico Baj (1924–2003) and Sergio Dangelo (b. 1932) curated an exhibition at Galleria San Fedele titled Pittura nucleare (Nuclear Painting). Baj began to use the mushroom cloud in his works of the 1950s, while Dangelo had been influenced by the free-ranging artistic expression and folkloric elements of the CoBrA group. Joe Colombo (1930–1971), an Abstract Expressionist-influenced artist later known as an industrial designer, joined the group in 1951. “Manifesto tecnico della Pittura nucleare” (Technical Manifesto), published in 1952 to accompany an exhibition in Brussels, concretized the group’s theories. In this screed the artists sought to reinvent painting for the atomic age, warn about the dangers of nuclear technology, and criticize the uniformity of contemporary painting. Dangelo spearheaded Il Gesto (1955–1959), a journal affiliated with the Movimento Nucleare. The movement is historically associated with Eaismo (“Atomic Era-ism”), founded by Voltolino Fontani in 1948 in Italy, and Salvador Dali’s “Mystical Manifesto” from 1951. Movimento Nucleare influenced artists internationally, including Yves Klein (1928–1962) and Asger Jorn (1914–1973).