Anthony Caro studied engineering at Christ’s College in Cambridge. During vacations he took art classes and worked in sculptor Charles Wheeler’s (1892–1974) studio. After serving in the Royal Navy from 1944 to 1946, Caro pursued sculpture in London at Regent Street Polytechnic and the Royal Academy. In the early 1950s Caro assisted Henry Moore (1898–1986) and began teaching at St Martin’s School of Art. Caro’s early sculptures were expressive and figurative. In 1959 he met the critic Clement Greenberg (1909–1994), who encouraged his use of industrial materials. On Caro’s first trip to the United States in 1959 he met sculptor David Smith (1906–1965), as well as several Color Field painters. The following year he made his first abstract steel sculptures, and in 1961 he created his first polychrome work. Caro’s breakthrough came in 1963 with a solo exhibition at Whitechapel Gallery in London. His brightly painted, sprawling abstract sculptures were displayed without pedestals, prompting a new relationship between art and spectator. He was included in Primary Structures at the Jewish Museum in New York in 1966 and the 1969 Bienal de São Paulo. Caro also worked with bronze, silver, lead, stone, wood and paper. In the 1970s he abandoned color in his work, and later returned to figuration.